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Final Project: Artists as Social Commentators

Artists serve a variety of purposes in our lives and our societies; sometimes very particular parts of an artist’s purpose changes over time, but the observation that I have made that artists fulfill the role of social commentator seems constant throughout historical and modern times.
In most pre-modern eras, artists were primarily employed by royalty or wealthy patrons to paint portraits of the patrons themselves, their families, their estates or to create monuments or lavish palaces. This in itself is a social commentary, although the artists are unwitting participants of the times. The art itself is a commentary on who was in power, what was in fashion, what was considered attractive or desirable and what the symbols of wealthy status were. As society shifted and conspicuous consumption of the ruling class was rejected in the Neo-Classical Era, artists were once again there, visually commenting on the new social climate.
In modern eras, art has become much more accessible, and the artist isn’t necessarily bound by the subject matter approved by the church or commissioned by their patron. In this blog post, I’ll be discussing the artist as the social commentator in the early modern and post-modern (present) eras through reaction to crisis and call for change.

 


 

The Dada movement is what I feel the first moment in art history where artists began to use visual media as a vehicle for their despair and disgust with the social constructs of the age. Dada was born following the horrors of World War I and the unprecedented loss of life that followed.
These artists, without a single unified style or medium, challenged the existing socioeconomic and cultural constructs that led to the Great War, and ultimately failed humanity. Dada poet Hugo Ball wrote, “For us, art is not an end in itself, but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism for the times we live in,” (Museum of Modern Art).

 

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“Bild mit heller Mitte (Picture with Light Centre),” Kurt Scwhitters (1951)

Kurt Scwhitters was a German Dada artist who had a traditional academic training at the Dresden Academy from 1909-1915. He was prepared for a conventional career as a painter, and his works from this time showed no influences of avant-garde or Cubist art styles. Originally exempt from military service during World War I due to epilepsy, he was later conscripted in 1918 and worked as a technical draftsman in a factory. After the war, he actively sought out connections with the modernist community in Berlin; this sudden shift in his work is attributed to the collapse of economic and political stability in Germany that coincided with the rise of the multi-national Dada movement (The Art Story.org).
He is credited with bringing collage to the forefront of the art world with his harmonious compositions created out of garbage from the streets from Post-World War I Europe. Train tickets, magazine scraps, lace and other printed media made it into his works. Scwhitters actively produced artistic journals, illustrated works, advertisements and even predicted many of the ideas and activities of the Post-Modern era of the 1960’s (such as assemblage and installation). He brought together artwork, ideas, sounds and words into unusual combinations, hoping for the audience to find their own meanings in the work (The Art Story.org). Through his works, he brought forth the commentary that art and the everyday can be synonymous.
I looked through galleries of countless works of Kurt Schwitters for this assignment, and I always ended up coming back to this particular one. I enjoy the composition of this image, the circular shape in the center that is broken up by straight lines and squares tracing the outline of collaged elements, and the use of paint to bring all of the elements into one (mostly) seamless piece of artwork. The influences of Cubist and Expressionist artists is evident here, as I see the broken up geometric shapes favored by cubists, but I also see fields of color that remind me a little bit of Rothko’s color fields. I like that while the printed words of his collaged materials are evident, they are not obvious. Some of them are layered over with paint and some of them are not, which makes them more bold. This treatment of the printed materials along with use of color gives this abstract piece a little bit of a depth of field. I very much enjoy this collage!

 

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“Bicycle Wheel,” Marchel Duchamp (1951)

What would a discussion of early modern artwork and social commentary be without Duchamp and his readymades? Marcel Duchamp sent shockwaves through the art world when he signed a urinal, placed it on a pedestal and called it art. Through the idea of readymades, manufactured objects that are selected by the artist and then designated as art (Museum of Modern Art), the discussion of art came down to its barest form in a single question: what is art? This challenged the notion that the arts were on a higher society pedestal, and that a painted or sculpted piece of artwork was more valuable and more art than an object created by a skilled craftsman or technical laborer.
The first version of the bicycle wheel was created in 1913 was lost, having been created almost forty years earlier than the 1951 Bicycle Wheel that has been catalog. Because teh materials that Duchamp selected to be readymades were mass-procduced, he didn’t consider readymade artworks to be an “original.” This certainly challenged what society considers art, and in many ways, still does today! I feel like the reactions of the art world with regard to Duchamp’s readymades are almost more of a social commentary than the artwork itself. And that, friends, is Dada.
Personally, I am not overly fond of Duchamp’s works. My preference for artwork is definitely two-dimensional and not manufactured beyond printed material used in collage. I don’t find urinals or stools with upside down bicycle wheels to hold my interest or really be all that relateable. What I do appreciate is Duchamp’s intent. He intended to challenge the preconceived notions of what art is, alongside the extensive history and exclusivity of art. I feel that he certainly succeeded.

 

 

In a previous blog post, I discussed the history of the Spanish Civil War and famous artworks of the time that called attention to the bloody conflict. I wanted to include propaganda posters alongside the works of Picasso, Miro and Dali, but couldn’t quite figure out how to include manufactured prints alongside original paintings that held deeply personal meanings of the artists themselves. So with the final project, I am glad that I can include these!
As a reminder of the historical context, the Spanish monarchy was overthrown in 1931 and a republic government with regular elections was installed in its place. General Franco opposed this government with his national political faction called the Falanges and with the aid of Nazi Germany and Facist Italy, went to war with the Republic. The Republic fled to Barcelona, and sought to preserve Spain’s artistic heritage. Through this, propaganda posters were created by fine artists and amateur artists alike as a call to action and a boost to morale.

 

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“Hoy más que nunca, VICTORIA (Today more than ever, VICTORY),” Signed: Renau, 1938. Lithograph.

This is one of the staggering amount of propaganda posters created during the Spanish Civil War. It was designed in Barcelona by Josep Renau, who was one of the artists most heavily involved in the war. He spirited paintings out of Valencia to safety in Spain and even helped organize the Spanish Pavilion in Paris in 1937 (where Picasso’s mural Guernica was displayed). Renau had a career as a painter and graphic designer, which is evident in the skill used in the design of his poster (The Visual Front).
This image comments on the social situation of the time: the Republic, holed up in Barcelona, aided by the Soviet Union, heavily bombarded by Franco. Although the colors are bright and the aviator seems to be both smiling and shouting, it strikes me as a rallying cry in a desperate time.

 


 

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“Looters,” Banksy, New Orleans (2008)

No Post-Modern discussion about artists as social commentators would be complete without Banksy! The anonymous graffiti artist with easily recognizable work has “bombed” locations all over the world; some of his artwork is whimsical with a tinge of irony, and others are direct criticism of capitalistic society and military power. Banksy works with stencils and spraypaint, creating his works anonymously. It is also worth noting that Banksy is very much in control of his own narrative, and has identified Marcel Duchamp as an influence in his work.
Although I am not crazy about Banksy, mostly from the fanfare of his fanbase of disenfranchised adolescents, I do understand and appreciate the technique and intent of his work. It takes a lot of guts to vandalize someone’s property with imagery that directly opposses the nature of their business or the politics of the country the property is in. This image stood out to me because of the dark black shape of the window, spraypainted next to an actual window. Banksy’s treatment of simplified shadows makes it look like the man on the left is climbing out of an actual window, which is a matter of technique that I appreciate.

 

 

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“Midway: Message from the Gyre,” Chris Jodran, Midway Atoll (2009-Current)

Chris Jordan’s photography has been widely circulated on blogs and social media feeds for the shock value to the average Faceobok user as well as the social commentary. Jordan’s ongoing work Midway highlights the consequences of humanity’s mass consumption. It is a fact that plastics are not biodegradable; they break down into microscopic pieces, but never truly decompose. Plastics that are irresponsibly disposed of in the ocean follow currents into the pacific ocean and end up in the Pacific Gyre, or the Midway Atoll, thousands of miles away from the nearest continent.
Jordan’s work documents the lethal quantities of discarded plastic that is foraged by albatross and fed to their chicks. The albatross mistake the floating debris as food when they are foraging. The images are heartbreaking to look at, and they force humanity to face its consumption being directly responsible for the death of another living being. Decaying organic matter contrasts inorganic plastics in color, shape and texture.
“For me, kneeling over their carcasses is like looking into a macabre mirror. These birds reflect back an appallingly emblematic result of the collective trance of consumerism and runaway growth,” Jordan wrote about Midway in 2011 (Chris Jordan).

 

 

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“Conflict Kitchen,” Dawn Weleski and John Rubin, Pittsburgh (2010)

Conflict Kitchen was started by a duo of artists who wanted to create a service-industry public installation (Complex.com). This, however, has a sticking point: they would only serve cuisine from nations that the United States is in conflict with. Each iteration of the kitchen features a facade specific to the nation and hosts events, performances, publications and discussion that seek to expand understanding of culture, politics and issues at stake within their region of focus.
I absolutely love the idea of Conflict Kitchen. I think the first reason for this is because I really, really like food. Food is as much of a cultural glue as art is, and sometimes food is art in how delicately it is put together. As far as Conflict Kitchen goes, the intent of art is very evident. Its social commentary is about how food can be the impetus of gatherings between humans and how the average United States citizen rarely engages in international conversation beyond the narrow lens that the media provides (Conflict Kitchen).

 

The kitchen is still open today and is currently serving Palestinian food.

 


 

Works Cited
“Moma | Dada”. Moma.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 30 April 2017.
“Kurt Schwitters Biography, Art, And Analysis Of Works”. The Art Story. N.p., 2017. Web. 30 April 2017.
“The Visual Front – Posters Of The Spanish Civil War”. Libraries.ucsd.edu. N.p., 2017. Web. 30 April 2017.
“80+ Beautiful Street Crimes Done By BANKSY”. Bored Panda. N.p., 2017. Web. 20 April 2017.
“Chris Jordan – Midway”. Chrisjordan.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 30 April 2017.
“The 50 Most Political Art Pieces Of The Past 15 Years31. “Conflict Kitchen,” 2010″. Complex UK. N.p., 2017. Web. 30 April 2017.
“Conflict Kitchen » About”. Conflictkitchen.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 30 April 2017.

 


 

Final Thoughts… 

I went into this course begrudgingly, dragging my feet and eyerolling over the fact that I had to take this class again after I had completed my Bachelor of Fine Arts thesis because of a clerical errors and poor time management of the past that I never bothered to correct. I admittedly didn’t have the most optimistic attitude about this class, as it started the way that most art history courses I have taken do. The Renaissance, Italian Masters, so on, and so forth. My attitude changed probably around the time we got to the Romantic and Early Modern eras… I really genuinely appreciated the opportunity to talk about art that truly interested me, that I had seen in person or has happened while I have been out of school. Through this course, I’ve rediscovered my love for art, talking about art and have actually been inspired to create my own artwork after many years of stress-induced illness and depression. Thanks, Lisa, for making an enjoyable online course!

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Non-Western Art: Japanese Printmaking

Woodcut printmaking has a rich history in Japan, being traced back as early as the eighth century as a convenient way to reproduce written text. In the mid-1700’s, prints became multi-color illustrations on single sheets of paper. Before then, artists had to hand paint each individual print (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Multi-color or polychrome prints (nishiki-e) were stunning to view back then, and began first as calendars exchanged by wealthy patrons in Edo.

 

Polychrome prints, while credited to a single artist, actually required a team of skilled artisans and crafters to produce: the designer, the engraver, the printer and the publisher. Each person had their own job from designing the different woodblocks to make up the single polychrome print, actually carving the wood, actually printing the carved design onto paper and selling the printed work. This production model is seen in European woodcut or lithography studios, and even in screen printing shops today.

Some of the most famous Japanese prints are called ukikyo-e, or “images of the floating world.” These are prints of seductive courtesans (often in erotic situations), famous kabuki actors or romantic vistas. Since prints are original pieces of artwork created in editions, the cost of the artwork was relatively low, so ukiyo-e prints enjoyed a wide audience.

Japanese woodcut prints eventually circulated out of Japan and into Europe, which had a profound influence on artists of the Post-Impressionist and Romantic movements. The French even coined a word, Japonisme, for the interest and study of Japanese artwork and culture. Vincent Van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo in 1888, “All of my work is based to some extent on Japanese art…” (Van Gogh Museum)

Printmaking now is an extremely varied art form, ranging from woodblocks and wood engravings, lithography, silkscreen, aquatint and mezzotint, collagraph, chine colle, hand-coloring and anything and everything in between. There are still print shops today that employ the designer, engraver, engineer and publisher, but it is also very common to see the artist fulfilling all of those roles themselves.

We’re going to take a look at two well-known Japanese ukiyo-e masters, one mid-modern printmaker and a post-modern printmaker.


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“The Great Wave Off Kanagawa (Kanagawa oki nami ura)” Katsushika Hokusai, Edo (Tokyo), 1830-32

Hokusai’s Great Wave is one of the most instantly recognizable Japanese prints made, and I would venture to say it is among some of the most recognizable prints in the world. It has also been a long-time favorite artwork of mine, and has even remained on my desktop background for a few years now. I just don’t get tired of looking at it from an aesthetic or technical standpoint.

Aesthetically, I enjoy the fact that the foaming crests of the waves have been illustrated and shaded ever-so-subtly with the lighter blue. It’s not often that I see waves illustrated with defined lines and a limited color palette, rather than layers and layers of blended paint. There’s even dots of white on the canvas for the spray of the waves!

Technically, this print’s registration and color palette are spot-on. Something interesting about Hokusai’s prints is that one of his claims to fame was prints using indigo and the imported pigment Prussian blue (Metropolitan Museum of Art).


 

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“Suido Bridge and the Surugadai Quarter,” from the One Hundred Famous Views of Edo series, Hiroshige, Edo (Tokyo) 1857

Hiroshige is a contemporary of Hokusai, and considered a master of the color woodblock print. His catalog of works number in the thousands and include a series called One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, which I have selected a work from. Suido Bridge and the Surugadai Quarter depicts a koi kite, which are hung on the fifth day of the fifth month in honor of the boy’s festival.

I am immediately drawn to this image for personal reasons, as my married family includes some Japanese customs, such as koi kites! My in-laws hang a giant koi kite from the top of their barn when their grandson comes to visit them.

The formal elements of this print are also quite wonderful as well! I enjoy that the kite takes up a great portion of the foreground with its solid, yet curving form which contrasts the straight, light pole from which it hangs. Hiroshige is able to achieve perspective and a depth of field in this image by how he has layered the elements of his composition: note how the kite hangs in front of the city scene and the little tip of the tail is in front of the kite’s pole.

The usage of colors in this print are nothing short of dreamy for me, which is pretty consistent with the intent of ukiyo-e style. The warm gradation in the sky and the dark gradation of colors in the river create interesting points of light and dark in the composition without being too overwhelming or detracting from the linework.


 

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“Purple Sleeves of my Love,” Shiko Munakata, Japan, 1955

 

 

 

Shiko Munakata is sometimes considered a “Japanese Picasso,” due to how large and expressive his woodcut prints are. He started out as a self-taught painter, but quickly changed course to printmaking after seeing a print by Sumio Kawakumi (Ronin Gallery). Munakata is well-known for his expressive depictions of Buddhist images on a large scale. Traditionally, Japanese artwork had to be small to accomodate the small dwellings and limited wall space of buyers. Munakata’s printmaking has definite Western influences to it (in both pre and post-WWII eras), and remind me a little bit of Chagall, Picasso and other European Expressionists and Cubists.

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Japanese Artist Shiko Munakata looking to see if he signed his Flour Hunting Mural in Munakata Gallery. Getty Images, 1959

This image illustrates just how enormous some of his prints are!


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“Wooden Bridge,” Morikazu Maeda, 1981

This print stands out to me as a great fusion of a more classic ukiyo-e aesthetic, but with a modern take on printmaking technique and color palette. This image is dreamy but also much darker, with heavier lines on the bridge and a heavier application of color. It looks to me like the grasses in the foreground weren printed directly on top of the colors below, helping achieve a depth of field without lineart.

Works Cited
“Inspiration From Japan”. Vangoghmuseum.nl. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.
Art, Author:. “Woodblock Prints In The Ukiyo-E Style | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline Of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum Of Art”. The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.
“Under The Wave Off Kanagawa (Kanagawa Oki Nami Ura), Also Known As The Great Wave, From The Series Thirty-Six Views Of Mount Fuji (Fugaku Sanjūrokkei) | Katsushika Hokusai | JP1847 | Work Of Art | Heilbrunn Timeline Of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum Of Art”. The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.
“Purple Sleeves Of My Love”. Roningallery.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.
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Postmodernism: Environmental Art

Post-modern artwork is our current era of art history, and it encompasses so many themes, ideas, materials and artistic voices. It’s hard to categorize as just one thing. In that vein, I’ll be discussing environmental art, and tie in other influences of postmodernism. Environmental art is one of the first types of installation and ephemeral artwork that I was exposed to as a young adult. I had an art teacher who frequently discussed the work of Andy Goldsworthy, and we’d go on field trips to create our own little pieces of art to later be reclaimed by the tide, weather or nearby critters.

 

Environmental art is art that is created within nature for purely aesthetic purposes, to help facilitate a closer connection between artist and nature, or to educate or protest the darker sides of globalism and consumerism. Environmental art uses a variety of materials; leafs and twigs woven together, icicles fused together with the artist’s own saliva, or found objects such as those created in large quantities and then discarded.

 
Andy Goldsworthy was mentioned in our course material for this module, so I know you already have an idea of what his art is about. I absolutely love Goldsworthy’s work. He creates compositions out of entirely gathered natural materials, painstakingly created and then left to the elements after a photograph is taken. Goldsworthy’s artwork exists to us as photographic records of the actual work. Goldsworthy documents his images with a 35mm standard lens and no filters. [[Goldsworthy.cc.gla.ac.uk citation]] He describes “ephemeral art” as, “It’s not about art. It’s just about life and the need to understand that a lot of things in life do not last,” “When I make an ephemeral work, when it’s finished, that’s the moment that it ends, in a way.” (Fresh Air, NPR)

 
The formal elements of composition are strongly represented in his works. He uses contrasting values, contrasting colors, juxtaposition of shapes and skillful use of light to capture the records of his works.

 

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Dark elm patch, Middleton Woods, Yorkshire (4 November 1980)

Artist journal entry accompanying image:

 

Diary: 4th Nov.
Middleton Woods.
Underneath Elm Tree
Surface leaves – all colours – some newly
fallen –
found dark leaves –
dark leaf – found light
a more recently fallen leaf
same size – took part
for dark leaf – spat on
underside and “stuck” to
the other leaf – made
dark leaf patch on ground.
Chrichton University Campus, Andy Goldsworthy Digital Collection

 

This is actually a Goldsworthy image that I had not seen before, but immediately caught my eye. I’m more familiar with his more starkly contrasting leaf arrangements, this one appeals to me because of the more subtle gradation of color and the dark circle made out of dark leaves, instead of holes cut in the leaves themselves. The leaves have already fallen and are beginning to decay, creating a swath of imperfect spots of color within the frame. It’s important to realize that each of these leaves are deliberately placed by the artist, having been found, inspected, appreciated for their imperfections and then finally placed.

 
Circles are a very common form in Goldsworthy’s works, either in outline or the full, filled-in shape. Circles provide a stable composition, and allow the subtle colors of the decaying leaves to radiate out from it. Note that the circle itself is imperfect by virtue of the imperfect materials used.

 
This image reminds me of walking trails around the UAF campus at the very end of August. The leaves are just starting to change and fall, but some of them still hold their vibrant green hues.

 

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Horse chestnut leaves
sections torn out
pinned with thorns to sticks pushed into pond bottom
muddy black clouds stirred up around where I worked
over the week the leaves began to fall and the pond rose slightly
work gradually disappearing
Loughborough, Leicestershire
(22 September 1986)

 

This is another Goldsworthy image I wasn’t familiar with until I began searching catalogs of his work for this assignment. I thought it appropriate to compare his uses of leaves between this image and the previous shown elm leaves. Laying leaves and twigs over still pools of water is a hallmark of Goldsworthy’s work, but the images I’m most familiar with take use the perfect (or nearly perfect) circle forms.

 
This one stood out to me because the ephemeral work itself does not take up the full space of the frame used. While it is definitely the focus of the frame, the leaf arrangement is shown more in the context of its surroundings as compared to the dark elm leaves shown above. The contrasting elements in this image are not color, but shape — see the organic, meandering outer form of the leaves, and then the straight sections and negative space of the leaf sections themselves.

 


 
Mathilde Roussel is a French environmental artist who takes a different approach to ephemeral works than Andy Goldsworthy. Instead of creating works from found materials in nature, Roussel brings natural materials into gallery spaces to create living sculptures. The works of hers that I found most appealing were her “living sculptures,” which are a form of ephemeral work that takes place through the planting, germination, growth and decay of living seeds placed within the sculpture. Her work brings particular attention to the precious resource of soil, and the life-sustaining properties it possesses.

 

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Pangea (Ongoing project as of 16 April 2017).

 
The Pangea installation is a living sculpture of wheat grain seeded in soil on a metal frame, suspended by metal cables. This sculpture is ephemeral in that it is a work that takes place over time; the wheat grass sprouts, grows and decays, creating an evolving landscape suspended in an otherwise barren and industrial space (Roussel 2017).

 

While I enjoy environmental art and the symbolic use of grass, I don’t find this image to be as striking as her other installation, Lives of Grass.

 

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Lives of Grass (2012)

While the Lives of Grass installation has a similar approach of living seeds growing and decaying over time, I feel like the fact that the grasses growing from human forms makes this work instantly more relateable. We, as humans, always recognize ourselves, even when our forms are simplified or otherwise abstracted. It seems that Roussel intended for that poignant relateability with her work, as this series focuses on a cycle of renewal with references to the Egyptian god Osiris (Roussel 2012).

 
A human’s connection to nature is very present through food cycles (Sekoff), illustrated by the wheat growing out of the sculptures. The food we ingest becomes a component of ourselves; it helps create our appearance as much as it fuels our bodies and gives us energy. Roussel has us confront that connection through the living grass human forms, which all seem to be deliberately placed in prone or otherwise helpless poses.

 


 

Michael Grab is a land or environmental artist, whose work focuses on the photography of balanced stacks of rocks within nature. He calls his work “gravity glue,” as gravity is the only glue that holds the balanced rocks together (Grab). These channel Andy Goldsworthy to me a little bit, but with a finer attention to the photography of the subject. As I teach myself photography, I find that I have a special appreciation for Michael Grab’s photographic technique and compositions a little bit moreso than the actual subjects represented. Without carefully considered compositions, I don’t think that these images of balanced rocks would be nearly as striking as they are.

 

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Star Dial, 07 February 2016 (Kaplankaya, Turkey)

As I perused this artist’s gallery, this image immediately jumped out at me for both the formal elements of his composition as well as the photographic technique. The form of the arch at first glance is very similar, but at a closer look, it’s not that simple. I like that the keystone (stone in the center of the arch which holds it together) is deliberately longer, as that long, straight stone creates a focal point in the off-centered composition. I just love the negative space created by the arch and keystone!

 

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Breathe, 08 September 2016 (Istria, Croatia)

 
I enjoy this image for a variety of reasons: the different sizes and shapes of rocks used, the time of day the photograph was taken, and the photographic technique itself. Michael Grab once again demonstrates the power of composition in creating a striking image; his image is divided fairly evenly into horizontal thirds and the stack of rocks holds the primary focus just a little bit off center in the vertical halves of the frame. The shapes of the rocks play off of each other in contrast of shapes; some of them are long, some round, large and small. Within the rocks are small negative spaces through which the background can be seen. Finally, the blurry sun setting over the horizon with all that bokeh from the low lens aperture is a definite photography preference of mine.

 

 


 

 

I particularly enjoyed this assignment, as I feel like for much of the semester I have been discussing artists whose work I am already quite familiar with. This time, I got to talk about an artist I know well, but discover two new artists who are working around the world today. I am also inspired to go create and photograph some of my own ephemeral works down on the Homer Spit!

 


Works Cited

“About — Gravity Glue”. Gravity Glue. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.
“Andy Goldsworthy Digital Catalogue: Photography”. Goldsworthy.cc.gla.ac.uk. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.
“Awesome Grass Sculptures Of Bodies”. The Huffington Post. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.
“Mathilde Roussel – Pangée”. Mathilderoussel.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.
“Sculptor Turns Rain, Ice And Trees Into ‘Ephemeral Works'”. NPR.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.